The Notion Is Crime Criminal Codes Specific Laws Jurisdictions

The Notion Is Crime Criminal Codes Specific Laws Jurisdictions

Criminal behavior codes is determined by the laws of specific jurisdictions. When it comes to prohibited conduct, there can be huge differences between and even between nations. What is legal in one area could be considered to be illegal in another. Likewise, an act which is considered to be a minor offense in one country could be an offense in another.

Changes in society and times can result in changes in the law of criminality. The behavior that was once considered illegal may now be legal. For instance, abortion, which was once illegal except in exceptional circumstances, is now legal in a number of countries. The same applies to homosexuality when it is private between consenting adults in the majority of Western countries. However, it remains a serious crime in some regions around the globe.

Once considered criminal, suicide and attempt suicide are now exempt from the criminal law in certain jurisdictions. In Oregon, in the U.S. A 1997 law passed in Oregon allows terminally ill patients to take their own lives with the prescription of lethal drugs. However, generally speaking, the trend is to expand the reach of criminal law, rather than decreasing its scope. Rather than eliminating existing crimes, statutes are more likely to create new ones.

Technology advancements have led to new possibilities for their misuse, leading to the development of new lawful restrictions. As the creation of the motor vehicle resulted in the creation of a complete set of criminal laws to control its use. So, the increasing usage of computers and, in particular, Internet usage has resulted in the creation of new criminal laws. Internet abuses and frauds, or old ones occurring in a new way, need to be regulate.

Common Law Codes

In many countries, the criminal law encapsulated in one statute that is known as the penal or criminal code. While the criminal codes of the majority of English-speaking countries derived from the English legal system. In England itself has not had an official criminal code. There are various English criminal laws, the most recent and longest running of which is the Treason Act 1351. As well as general guidelines mainly found in case law rulings.

The absence of a criminal code is not because of inefficiency and since the beginning of the 19th century. There have been numerous attempts to develop such codes. The initial effort 1833-53 spearheaded by two criminal law commissioners, who meticulously examined the current condition of criminal laws. Faced with a multitude of sometimes inconsistent and overlapping statutes. The commissioners discovered that determining what the law said about specific subjects extremely complicated.

Different laws governing the same offense, usually with different penalties, permitted for broad judicial discretion and inconsistent regarding penalties. The commissioners came up with various drafts that submitted to the legislature and passed, but none adopted. Due to resistance from the judiciary, attempts to codify criminal law abandoned instead. The criminal laws consolidated in 1861, into a series of statutes, most notably the Larceny Act. The Malicious Damage Act, as well as the Offences Against the Person Act. Since these statutes consolidations and not codifications and thus, many of the inconsistent provisions of earlier laws resisted. For instance, the Offences Against the Person Act remains in effect. However, the other statutes replaced with more modern laws.

Civil Law Codes

While the criminal law systems of many English-speaking countries are based upon English legal systems based on common law. However, the legal systems of many European as well as Latin American countries, as along with many nations that are located in Africa and Asia and Africa. Civil law established from the Law of the Twelve Tables 451-450 BC which an ancient lawful code which published by the Roman Forum.

According to civil law, the legislative body, representing the people, is the only source of law. It is a means of providing an exhaustive, precise legal code that is easily understand by people of every age and can be use in all circumstances. Thus, the legal codes of civil-law nations tend to be longer than those of common-law countries. If these countries are even allowed to have them.

Judges are required to follow the law as written and are generally prohibited from engaging in this sort of interpretation which is typical in common law systems. Judges will therefore use the legal principles outlined within the laws if more than one law applies or if the circumstances justify the law’s use is unclear. Because of the central role of the legislature when drafting the legal code. Civil law systems are also not able to provide the sort of judiciary review that is common in other countries. Case law laws are derived from the judicial interpretation of constitutional statutes or laws.

Islamic Law Codes

Countries with a majority Muslim people have adopted different law systems. Countries that were English colonies of Pakistan, Bangladesh, Jordan, and certain Persian Gulf states generally adopted English legal systems. Including criminal laws as well as procedure, and states that were under French colonial rule, such as the countries of Maghrib and North Africa, including Egypt as well as Syria, and Iraq generally adopted civil-law systems. Those states that have retained or adopted Islamic law-also known as the Shariah-with little or no changes are Saudi Arabia and Iran. The final shah of Iran had reformatted a significant number of laws by incorporating previous colonial laws. However, it was almost entirely substitute after the Islamic revolution in the country in 1979.

According to the Qur’an, Islamic laws are a system that is theocratic, inspired by God Allah via Muhammad’s teachings, according to the Koran. In the fundamentalist version of Islam, the law drawn from the doctrines of Muhammad which not specifically found in the Qur`an. The laws do not come out of traditional sources, like legislators or kings. The Shari’ah is an illegal code of law that includes a variety of different added crimes or infractions with a punishment that is fix and cannot be change. Apostasy requires death sentence, extramarital relationships can be killed by stoning, and drinking alcohol can result in 80 lashes. Other lesser offenses ta’ i r I and r permit judges to exercise discretion in determining the sentence of offenders.


Criminal offences in the majority of modern African nations are describe in penal or criminal codes that are a stark deviation from the non-codified English criminal law upon which most codes are based. Because of their origins they typically reflect the penal notions of the colonial era. The principal changes for local African beliefs or concerns are the introduction of laws against different traditional practices, including witchcraft, and the expansion of the law of criminals in countries that have planned economies to include economic violations against the state and, in the wake of the increasing rate of certain kinds of crimes and the need for special provisions for specific offenses the Armed crime, robbery. Special tribunals, which not restricted to the usual procedures being created in numerous African countries to address the aforementioned crimes.

Sierra Leone retained the role of customary or traditional law than other African nations. An ex- British territory, which gained its independence from Britain in the year 1961. Sierra Leone adopted a general law based on English common law and the laws of the legislature. In the late 1960s, the laws were codified into one law. The majority of the inhabitants resided in rural areas and were subject to the so-called customary law. Although general law applies to all of the country, customary law, which rooted in the traditions and practices that a part of indigenous people. Continues to differ according to the district or area. Customary law is enforce through separate courts, where the judges are appoint by tribal elders.


As a culture, China has tended to ignore formal laws and instead rely on informal codes of conduct, some of which came from Confucius’s writings 551-479 BC. These codes of conduct emphasized the mediation and reconciliation of conflict that allowed everyone to save face. The codes still adhered to even after the founding of the communist People’s Republic of China in 1949. This was partly because Chairman Mao Zedong was uneasy about formal laws, which he considered an institution of the bourgeois class

The suspicion grew into the Cultural Revolution 1966-76 in which the formal legal institutions largely destroyed and eventually destroyed. The rise to power of Deng Xiaoping in the wake of the end of the Cultural Revolution brought the establishment of formal legality as a part of a larger overhaul of Chinese society. In 1979, the National People’s Congress, China’s legislature approved the first laws of criminal law as well as criminal procedure. The Civil Code was first enacted in 1986. It was relatively easy to comprehend and later updated in the 1990s, dealt with the complete spectrum of punishments and crimes.

General Rules Of Criminal Law Constitutes Statutory

General Rules Of Criminal Law Constitutes Statutory

The criminal code, or statutory laws, determines what constitutes a crime. However, a handful of crimes in English law are not identify by statute. Despite differences in structure and specificity, the criminal code shares a few common principles.

The Rule Against Retroactivity

The most widely recognize legal principle of law that is widely accept by the public is the prohibition of retroactivity. Ex post facto laws prevent individuals from being punish for crimes they did not commit at the time. Existing crimes not expanded by the rule, but new crimes cannot decided.

The principle has not always been recognizing in every country. Norway and Denmark both passed laws following World War II that retroactively made collaborating with the Nazis a crime. A large number of individuals tried, convicted and imprisoned in accordance with the laws. About 40 of them in each nation executed. For instance, in the United States, the so-called Megan’s laws. Promulgated in the late 1990s, required convicted sexual offenders to register with law-enforcement officials within their respective communities.

The officials then notified other communities’ inhabitants of the sex offenders and their presence. In many states Megan’s laws subsequently used to punish offenders who committed crimes prior to the time that the law passed. In the past, the courts have been dividing over whether registration a retroactive punishment that violated the ex post facto clause in the U.S. Constitution. Doe et al. See the law on sexual predators for more information on Megan’s law not being punitive.

Criminal Intention

One of the most basic general laws in criminal law states that a person not able to found guilty of a crime if they have not planned to commit the crime at issue. There are a few exceptions to this rule. As long as the person is unaware that the act is criminal, ignorance of law does not excuse their conduct. So, if an individual believes that an action is lawful and knowingly does the act, then the legal requirement of criminal intent satisfied.

In the majority of Western countries, the law permits the concept of insanity as a state where a person is not able to demonstrate criminal intent. There are a variety of interpretations regarding the insanity laws. In the most popular version, it is mental illness or defect that causes someone not to be aware of what he’s doing. This may cause him to not realize that the actions he’s taking are not right.

An insanity finding can result in acquittal of charges brought against a criminal due to the fact that the person lacks the required intent. However, such a verdict is rare in countries that allow this defense. Another rare circumstance that completely shields people from criminal responsibility is a type of involuntary behavior know as automatism. This is an affliction where the mind cannot control bodily movements, such as when sleepwalking. This makes an individual ineligible for serious or even fatal consequences.

Criminal Obligation

Criminal responsibility does not just apply to those who carry out criminal acts, but also those who assist. Aid the perpetrator through encouraging or actively participating in the commission of the crime by offering details, implements, or other practical assistance. The individuals who actually commit the crime. Carrying out the act or using the weapon that delivers a fatal blow are usually refer to as principals in the 1st degree and those who aid during the crime.

Securing the victim’s head down while the principal in first degree strikes him are considered first degree principals while those who help in the beginning of the crime. Through providing the firearm or giving details are considered to be accomplices prior to the event. In general, the law regards everyone equally accountable and subject to the same penalty.

In many instances, even though it is the accomplice prior to the incident is deemed to be more accountable when you suspect that he initiated the offense and orchestrated for it to take place by an accomplice or in certain instances. The person who commits the crime is totally innocent of all motives e.g., nurses who. Without knowing it, administer to patients, based on a prescription from a doctor, a medication that later turns into poison. In this example, the person performing the act is an innocent person and is not criminally liable. However, the person who caused an innocent person to commit the act is classified as the primary student.

The Detection Of Crimes Specific Law Enforcement Agencies

The Detection Of Crimes Specific Law Enforcement Agencies

In most countries, the police are in charge of detecting crime. However, specific law enforcement agencies could be charge with the detection of specific types of crimes. For example, customs and immigration departments are often charge with fighting the smuggling of drugs and other relate crimes. Crime detection is divide into three distinct stages the finding that an offense has occurred, the detection of suspects. This is follow by the gathering of sufficient evidence to charge the suspect with court. A lot of crimes are identify by other people than police e.g. victims as well as witnesses.

Certain crimes, particularly those that require the subject’s consent. Such as engaging in illegal drug use and prostitution or that have no identified victim. Like obscenity-are usually not report until the police take proactive steps to determine if they’ve been commit. Crimes are often detect using controversial techniques, including eavesdropping, astronic surveillance, and infiltration of groups.

The importance of the forensic science

Forensic science plays an essential part when it comes to the investigation into serious crime. One of the first major accomplishments in this field was the creation of techniques to identify individuals through fingerprints. At the turn of the century it found that nearly every touch between fingers with any fix surface cause a mark which could be revealed through a variety of methods using small powders. In 1894, in England the Troup Committee, a group created under the direction of the Home Secretary. To establish the most effective method for personal identification.

Recognized that no two people had the same fingerprints, a claim that has not been questioned in the least. In 1900 , another committee suggested using fingerprints as a method for the purpose of identifying criminals. First, an Argentine court recognized fingerprint evidence in the early 1890s, and then an English court in 1902. A number of other countries later implemented systems for fingerprint authentication as well.

The search for fingerprints was a laborious manual task using various methods of classification. The advent during the 80s of computer-based databases that allow the storage of electronic data and speedy scanning of fingerprint collections has allowed researchers to match fingerprints much faster.

Identification of suspects

The mode of operation or technique used by criminals to commit a crime often assists in identifying the perpetrator as a lot of criminals commit similar crimes. The method used by burglars to gain entry into a home and the kind of tools they use to access property taken or the type of deceit used by victims of the fraud can all indicate the person responsible for the crime.

The identification of a person from the perspective of the victim frequently also possible. Police typically give witnesses or victims who think they will identify the criminal a photo album of many known criminals. The suspect who is identify by this method is typically call upon to participate in a line-up of individuals who have similar characteristics, from which witnesses are require to identify the suspect. But scientists have known for years that eyewitnesses frequently are not reliable and that the majority of wrongful convictions result from inaccurate eyewitness identities.

Some scholars have suggested that the use of cross-racial identities can lead to mistaken identification because people belonging to one race may be unable to distinguish people belonging to different races. In addition, post-event assimilation the process whereby witnesses integrate relevant information following the event. May dramatically affect the way they perceive the perpetrator. Additionally, the pressure of an incident in general as well as an incident with a gun, in particular could reduce the credibility of witnesses as well.

Collecting evidence

In nations where the legal system is well establish. It is essential that the agency investigating have evidence that is admissible in court that proves the suspect is innocent. Police departments typically are sure that a specific person is accountable for a crime. However, they may not be able to prove guilt through legally admissible proof. In order to gather the required evidence, police utilize a variety of methods and authorities. Police procedures and powers, when misused, may allow the police to violate the constitutional rights of suspects. This is why the police are usually closely scrutinize by law or the courts.

It is the case in United States any evidence discover through an investigation that doesn’t conform to the rules and rules set forth by the legislature and courts cannot be used in court, even though it can clearly establish that the person is guilty accused. Because it can hinder the conviction of someone who is innocent This doctrine. Also know as the Exclusionary rule This has led to controversy and has cause controversy in the United States and has not typically been implement across other nations. The rule of exclusion has been particularly relevant in drug-related cases. In which the seized drugs typically constitute the sole charge against the accused according to U.S.

Department of Justice, Adherence changes to the rule have resulted in the dismissal of around one per cent of cases involving drugs. However, since its decision in United States v. Leon 1984, the U.S. Supreme Court It has adopted a number of pro-prosecution modifications of the exclusionary rule. Such as the somewhat restricted good faith exception for the police.

interrogation along with confession

A crucial aspect of the investigation of criminal offenses involves that of questioning by suspects. The goal of questioning is typically to get confessions from the suspect, which will remove the need for an uncontested trial. Several countries impose restrictions on the nature and method of interrogation so that suspects aren’t compelled to confess through unacceptable methods. However, in reality, these restrictions are not as effective as they seem.

The United States, for example suspects must be advise of their rights. Such as the right not to speak as well as the right to have a lawyer on hand during interrogation, To receive the assistance of a lawyer at the cost of the state in case they are unable to afford it. According to Miranda v. Arizona1966, suspects are to be give Miranda cautions as a legal requirement. Failure to inform a suspect of these rights as well as other rights could cause the denial of confessions as evidence.

Some countries have similar laws but the actual practice in these countries could be very different. Russia is one example. Russia has a confessional rule which is very like the Miranda warnings. In China the suspect has a legal obligation to silence and there exists no lawful penal penalty for refusing to answer questions. Police are not permit to get confessions using force. In reality the police in certain countries may employ physical force to get confessions. In addition, evidence obtain illegally is not prohibite during trial.